Production Overview

§Running Lagom in production

Lagom can be set up to work with most production environments, ranging from basic, manual deployments on physical servers to fully-managed service orchestration platforms such as OpenShift, Kubernetes and Mesosphere DC/OS. The core APIs in Lagom are independent of any particular deployment platform. Where Lagom does need to interface with the environment, it provides extensible plugin points that allow you to configure your services for production without requiring changes to your service implementation code.

The following information provides an overview of production considerations that apply to any environment. If you are deploying your service in OpenShift clusters, you can also refer to the Deploying Lightbend applications to OpenShift guide.

The production considerations can be summed up as setting up and tuning some or all of the following:

  • production of artifacts (ZIP archives, docker images, …)
  • service location (other lagom services, external services, databases, etc…)
  • Akka Cluster formation
  • expose lifecycle data (readiness, liveness)

§Production considerations

The production environment determines the methods for packaging your services, managing Akka Cluster formation, and providing service location, including that for Cassandra and Kafka:

  • Lagom leverages the open-source sbt-native-packager plugin to produce packages:

    • By default, sbt produces standalone “universal” zip archives containing the compiled service, all of its dependencies, and a start script. These have no special infrastructure requirements and can be unzipped and run just about anywhere that supports Java. However, this includes no built-in facility for process monitoring and recovering from crashes, so for a resilient production environment, you’ll need to provide this another way.

    • You can also use sbt-native-packager to build and publish Docker images that can be used with Kubernetes, DC/OS, or any other Docker-compatible production environment.

    • Otherwise, you can configure sbt-native-packager to produce other archive formats, Windows (MSI) installers, Linux packages in Debian or RPM format and more.

  • At runtime, services need to locate the addresses of other services to communicate with them. This requires you to configure an implementation of a ServiceLocator that Lagom uses to look up the addresses of services by their names. The production environment you choose might provide a service discovery mechanism that you can use with Lagom.

  • Lagom services that require an Akka Cluster (which includes any that use the Lagom Persistence or Publish-Subscribe APIs) must have a strategy for forming a cluster or joining an existing cluster on startup.

    • If you don’t use a service orchestration platform and can determine the addresses of some of your nodes in advance of deploying them, Akka Cluster can be configured manually by listing the addresses of seed nodes in the service configuration.

    • When you don’t specify a static list of seed-nodes, Lagom will enable the Akka Cluster Bootstrap extension for integration with other service discovery infrastructure. Using Akka Cluster Bootstrap requires setting up a Service Discovery method (for example Service Discovery for Kubernetes). See the Lagom Cluster documentation for more information.

  • The Akka Cluster Bootstrap feature introduced above requires enabling Akka management HTTP. That is an Akka HTTP server shared by multiple features, running on port 8558 by default (that port is configurable). Lagom will start the Akka management HTTP automatically anytime a feature that requires it is enabled. See also the Lagom Cluster documentation.

    • Akka management HTTP also powers Akka-provided Health Checks. Health Checks is a pluggable mechanism where library providers and users can register logic to determine if a service is alive and/or ready. Lagom will enable Akka Cluster Membership Health Checks by default any time the Lagom service requires a cluster. Akka Health Checks register, by default, the ready/ and alive/ routes and implement the readiness and aliveness semantics as described by Kubernetes.

  • Lagom’s Cassandra module comes out of the box ready to locate your Cassandra cluster using the service locator. This means Lagom considers Cassandra like any other external service it may need to locate. If your production environment requires it, you can also choose to bypass the service locator by providing Cassandra contact points directly in the service configuration, as described in the section below.

  • Similarly, Lagom’s Kafka integration uses the service locator by default to look up bootstrap servers for the Kafka client. This can also be overridden to specify a list of brokers in the service configuration. See the Lagom Kafka Client documentation for more information.

§Using static Cassandra contact points

If you want to use dynamic service location for your services but need to statically locate Cassandra, modify the application.conf for your service. You will need to disable Lagom’s ConfigSessionProvider and fall back to the one provided in akka-persistence-cassandra, which uses the list of endpoints listed in contact-points. The application.conf settings will be applied in all environments (development and production) unless overridden. See developer mode settings on overriding Cassandra setup in Dev Mode for more information on settings up Cassandra in dev mode.

To set up static Cassandra contact-points and disable ConfigSessionProvider, modify the following sections of the application.conf file:

cassandra.default {
  ## list the contact points  here
  contact-points = ["", ""]
  ## override Lagom’s ServiceLocator-based ConfigSessionProvider
  session-provider = akka.persistence.cassandra.ConfigSessionProvider

cassandra-journal {
  contact-points = ${}
  session-provider = ${cassandra.default.session-provider}

cassandra-snapshot-store {
  contact-points = ${}
  session-provider = ${cassandra.default.session-provider}
} {
  contact-points = ${}
  session-provider = ${cassandra.default.session-provider}

§Using static values for services and Cassandra

You can deploy Lagom systems to static locations by using static configuration. When using static service location, you can also hardcode Cassandra locations. To achieve this, follow these steps:

  1. Specify service locations in application.conf.
  2. Bind the ConfigurationServiceLocator in your Guice module.
  3. Optionally add Cassandra locations in application.conf.

The ConfigurationServiceLocator reads the service locator configuration from Lagom’s application.conf file. Here is an example that specifies static locations for two Lagom services: {
  serviceA = ""
  serviceB = ""

To instruct Lagom to use the ConfigurationServiceLocator, you need to mix the ConfigurationServiceLocatorComponents trait into your application in production mode, as shown in the following example. Use the LagomDevModeComponents trait in a development environment.

import com.lightbend.lagom.scaladsl.devmode.LagomDevModeComponents
import com.lightbend.lagom.scaladsl.server._
import com.lightbend.lagom.scaladsl.client.ConfigurationServiceLocatorComponents

class HelloApplicationLoader extends LagomApplicationLoader {
  override def load(context: LagomApplicationContext) =
    new HelloApplication(context) with ConfigurationServiceLocatorComponents

  override def loadDevMode(context: LagomApplicationContext) =
    new HelloApplication(context) with LagomDevModeComponents

To hardcode the Cassandra contact points when using a static service locator, add the following to the application.conf file: {
  cas_native = "tcp://"

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